M0221

Murashige & Skoog medium

Original concentration, (1962)

MS medium is the most used tissue culture medium, of which many variations have been developed. The medium is originated from White’s medium and originally developed for the cultivation of Nicotiana tabacum calli. Compared to White medium, the concentration of all ingredients is increased. An increase to 50-60 mM nitrogen stimulated the growth of Nicotiana cells significantly, however a concentration of 80 mM and higher was clearly disadvantageous to the cells. The increase of all other elements, especially the macro -elements, also stimulated the growth of the calli. Due to the high concentration of minerals, MS medium is a very rich and -saline -medium and may be too salty to certain plant species. To avoid this problem, MS is often used with the micro elements in full concentration, but with the macro elements in respectively half or three-quarter of the concentration as originally described by the authors. Sometimes the original MS vitamines are replaced by the vitamins of Linsmaier and Gamborg B5 medium regarding the higher concentration of Thiamine in relation to the requirement of this vitamin by plants.

Micro Elements mg/l µM
CoCl2.6H2O 0.025 0.11
CuSO4.5H2O 0.025 0.10
FeNaEDTA 36.70 100.00
H3BO3 6.20 100.27
KI 0.83 5.00
MnSO4.H2O 16.90 100.00
Na2MoO4.2H2O 0.25 1.03
ZnSO4.7H2O 8.60 29.91
Macro Elements mg/l mM
CaCl2 332.02 2.99
KH2PO4 170.00 1.25
KNO3 1900.00 18.79
MgSO4 180.54 1.50
NH4NO3 1650.00 20.61

Murashige T. and Skoog F., Physiol. Plant, 15, 473 (1962).

Hazard statements

  • H315 Causes skin irritation
  • H319 Causes serious eye irritation
  • H335 May cause respiratory irritation

Precautionary statements

  • P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray
  • P302 IF ON SKIN:
  • P305 IF IN EYES:
  • P351 Rinse continuously with water for several minutes
  • P352 Wash with soap and water
Filename Language File size
M0221_GB.pdf English 158 KB
M0221_NL.pdf Nederlands 162 KB
M0221_DE.pdf Deutsch 164 KB
M0221_FR.pdf Français 164 KB
M0221_ES.pdf Español 164 KB
M0221_IT.pdf Italiano 162 KB
Filename Batch number Expiry date Language
M0221_P16953_GB.pdf P16953 04-2023 English
M0221_P16689_GB.pdf P16689 12-2022 English
M0221_P16692_GB.pdf P16692 12-2022 English
M0221_P16565_GB.pdf P16565 11-2022 English
M0221_P16395_GB.pdf P16395 10-2022 English
M0221_P16394_GB.pdf P16394 10-2022 English
M0221_P16200_GB.pdf P16200 07-2022 English
M0221_P16204_GB.pdf P16204 07-2022 English
M0221_P16202_GB.pdf P16202 07-2022 English
M0221_P16162_GB.pdf P16162 07-2022 English
M0221_P16087_GB.pdf P16087 06-2022 English
M0221_P16003_GB.pdf P16003 05-2022 English
M0221_P15780_GB.pdf P15780 03-2022 English
M0221_P15665_GB.pdf P15665 02-2022 English
M0221_P15404_GB.pdf P15404 11-2021 English
M0221_P15388_GB.pdf P15388 11-2021 English
M0221_P15297_GB.pdf P15297 10-2021 English
M0221_P15298_GB.pdf P15298 10-2021 English
M0221_P14892_GB.pdf P14892 05-2021 English
M0221_P14893_GB.pdf P14893 05-2021 English
M0221_P14704_GB.pdf P14704 02-2021 English
M0221_P14584_GB.pdf P14584 01-2021 English
M0221_P14259_GB.pdf P14259 10-2020 English
M0221_P14082_GB.pdf P14082 09-2020 English
M0221_P13989_GB.pdf P13989 08-2020 English
M0221_P13990_GB.pdf P13990 08-2020 English
M0221_P13914_GB.pdf P13914 07-2020 English
M0221_P13498_GB.pdf P13498 06-2020 English
M0221_P13646_GB.pdf P13646 05-2020 English
M0221_P13783_GB.pdf P13783 05-2020 English
M0221_P13782_GB.pdf P13782 05-2020 English
M0221_P13351_GB.pdf P13351 01-2020 Expired English
M0221_P13176_GB.pdf P13176 11-2019 Expired English
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  • M0221.0005
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  • M0221.0010
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  • M0221.0025
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