M0221

Murashige & Skoog medium

Original concentration, (1962)

MS medium is the most used tissue culture medium, of which many variations have been developed. The medium is originated from White’s medium and originally developed for the cultivation of Nicotiana tabacum calli. Compared to White medium, the concentration of all ingredients is increased. An increase to 50-60 mM nitrogen stimulated the growth of Nicotiana cells significantly, however a concentration of 80 mM and higher was clearly disadvantageous to the cells. The increase of all other elements, especially the macro -elements, also stimulated the growth of the calli. Due to the high concentration of minerals, MS medium is a very rich and -saline -medium and may be too salty to certain plant species. To avoid this problem, MS is often used with the micro elements in full concentration, but with the macro elements in respectively half or three-quarter of the concentration as originally described by the authors. Sometimes the original MS vitamines are replaced by the vitamins of Linsmaier and Gamborg B5 medium regarding the higher concentration of Thiamine in relation to the requirement of this vitamin by plants.

Micro Elements mg/l µM
CoCl2.6H2O 0.025 0.11
CuSO4.5H2O 0.025 0.10
FeNaEDTA 36.70 100.00
H3BO3 6.20 100.27
KI 0.83 5.00
MnSO4.H2O 16.90 100.00
Na2MoO4.2H2O 0.25 1.03
ZnSO4.7H2O 8.60 29.91
Macro Elements mg/l mM
CaCl2 332.02 2.99
KH2PO4 170.00 1.25
KNO3 1900.00 18.79
MgSO4 180.54 1.50
NH4NO3 1650.00 20.61

Murashige T. and Skoog F., Physiol. Plant, 15, 473 (1962).

Hazard statements

  • H315 Causes skin irritation
  • H319 Causes serious eye irritation
  • H335 May cause respiratory irritation

Precautionary statements

  • P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray
  • P302 IF ON SKIN:
  • P305 IF IN EYES:
  • P351 Rinse continuously with water for several minutes
  • P352 Wash with soap and water
Filename Language File size
M0221_GB.pdf English 158 KB
M0221_NL.pdf Nederlands 162 KB
M0221_DE.pdf Deutsch 164 KB
M0221_FR.pdf Français 164 KB
M0221_ES.pdf Español 164 KB
M0221_IT.pdf Italiano 162 KB
Filename Batch number Expiry date Language
M0221_P20501_GB.pdf P20501 08-2025 English
M0221_P20500_GB.pdf P20500 08-2025 English
M0221_P20468_GB.pdf P20468 07-2025 English
M0221_P20470_GB.pdf P20470 07-2025 English
M0221_P20741_GB.pdf P20741 07-2025 English
M0221_P20225_GB.pdf P20225 04-2025 English
M0221_P20227_GB.pdf P20227 04-2025 English
M0221_P20226_GB.pdf P20226 04-2025 English
M0221_P19902_GB.pdf P19902 03-2025 English
M0221_P19805_GB.pdf P19805 03-2025 English
M0221_P19806_GB.pdf P19806 03-2025 English
M0221_P19807_GB.pdf P19807 03-2025 English
M0221_P19808_GB.pdf P19808 03-2025 English
M0221_P19554_GB.pdf P19554 01-2025 English
M0221_P19553_GB.pdf P19553 01-2025 English
M0221_P19503_GB.pdf P19503 12-2024 English
M0221_P19224_GB.pdf P19224 10-2024 English
M0221_P18736_GB.pdf P18736 07-2024 English
M0221_P18738_GB.pdf P18738 07-2024 English
M0221_P18384_GB.pdf P18384 04-2024 English
M0221_P18385_GB.pdf P18385 04-2024 English
M0221_P18367_GB.pdf P18367 03-2024 English
M0221_P18351_GB.pdf P18351 03-2024 English
M0221_P17909_GB.pdf P17909 12-2023 English
M0221_P18032_GB.pdf P18032 12-2023 English
M0221_P17896_GB.pdf P17896 12-2023 English
M0221_P17494_GB.pdf P17494 09-2023 English
M0221_P17493_GB.pdf P17493 08-2023 English
M0221_P17069_GB.pdf P17069 05-2023 English
M0221_P17112_GB.pdf P17112 05-2023 English
M0221_P17125_GB.pdf P17125 05-2023 English
M0221_P17056_GB.pdf P17056 04-2023 English
M0221_P16953_GB.pdf P16953 04-2023 English
M0221_P16941_GB.pdf P16941 03-2023 English
M0221_P16689_GB.pdf P16689 12-2022 English
M0221_P16692_GB.pdf P16692 12-2022 English
M0221_P16565_GB.pdf P16565 11-2022 English
M0221_P16395_GB.pdf P16395 10-2022 English
M0221_P16394_GB.pdf P16394 10-2022 English
M0221_P16200_GB.pdf P16200 07-2022 Expired English
M0221_P16201_GB.pdf P16201 07-2022 Expired English
M0221_P16204_GB.pdf P16204 07-2022 Expired English
M0221_P16202_GB.pdf P16202 07-2022 Expired English
M0221_P16162_GB.pdf P16162 07-2022 Expired English
M0221_P16087_GB.pdf P16087 06-2022 Expired English
M0221_P16003_GB.pdf P16003 05-2022 Expired English
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